Bunaken National Marine Park is considered one of the world's top marine park and top diving destinations, located in the Manado Gulf in the center of the Coral Triangle of the Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, providing habitat more then 390 species of coral as well as many fish, mollusc, reptile and marine mammal species.
Bunaken National Marine Park established as a national park in 1991 and is among the first of Indonesia's growing system of marine parks and is among the first of Indonesia's marine parks. Bunaken National Marine Park consist about five islands that was around it, namely Manado Tua Island, Bunaken Island, Siladen Island, Mantehage Island along with several of its children island, and the Naen Island, Bunaken Marine Park on the whole had the area measuring about 75,265 hectares including the island and about 22 villages with more then 35,000 residents. Bunaken National Marine Park had more then 70 diving points (dive spots) with the depth that varied through to 1.344 meters. From all the dive spots, 35 dive spots were around the Bunaken Island and this 35 dive spots was often visited by the diver and the lover of beauty of underwater scenery. That was interesting in the Bunaken National Marine Park was the existence Underwater Great Walls, that also often mentioned as Hanging Walls, that stood vertical and buckled above. Apart from becoming scenery that was picturesque to be seen, this Hanging Walls also became the source of food for fish in waters around the Bunaken Island.
Bunaken National Marine Park is geographically included in the waters of "Golden Triangle" area is a habitat where more than 3,000 species of fish. Waters "Golden Triangle" which is meant that connects the ocean waters of Papua, the Philippines, and Indonesia. Because of its inherent wealth, government and non-governmental organizations (national or international) work together to run a program of conservation of coral reefs and mangroves in the area of Bunaken. Coral reef conservation program aims to protect thousands of species of marine fish from extinction.
A very rich coral ecosystem covers most of Bunaken National Marine Park, dominated by fringing reef and barrier reef corals. There are about 390 species of coral recorded in the waters of the Park. A distinct feature is a 25-50 metre vertical coral wall which is inhabited by 13 coral genus. The seaweeds that can be found here include Caulerpa, Halimeda, and Padina species, while the dominant seagrasses, in particular in the islands of Montehage and Nain, are Thalassia hemprichii, Enhallus acoroides, and Thalassodendron ciliatum. The park is also abundant in different species of fish, marine mammals and reptiles, birds, molluscs and mangrove species.
The Bunaken National Marine Park had the mangrove forest ecosystem, padang lamun, the coral reef, and the mainland /the coast ecosystem. The available plants kind in the Bunaken National Park mangrove forest was Lumnitzera sp, Rhizophora sp, Bruguiera sp and Sonneratia sp. The Bunaken National Marine Park forest was also rich in various prawns kinds, the crab, the mollusc and various sea bird kinds like the heron, the seagull and the sea groove. In his sea ecosystem, the Bunaken National Park had 13 genera coral lived and the most interesting was vertical coral wall through to 25-50 meters. Gotten by approximately 90 fish kinds and various mollusc kinds. Whereas the ecosystem of the mainland of the islands in the Bunaken National Marine Park was rich in animal kind such as black Sulawesi monkey (Macaca Nigra), the cuscus (Ailurops Ursinus), deer (Cervus Timorensis) and the coconut crop, the palm, sago.